|作者：佚名 文章来源：网络 点击数： 更新时间：2018/4/8 9:50:13 |
(2017•长沙市统一模拟)In between running one of the world's largest charitable agencies and acting as Microsoft's technology advisor，Bill Gates manages to find time to read books，both long and short.Now Gates—who has been labeled a“greedy”reader—has released a list of his favorite books.All of the books are standout reads，according to the billionaire，most of which are focused on business and economy.
Here are Bill's top four picks(with parts of his full review of each book)．
Business Adventures，by John Brooks
Brooks' collection was published in 1969 and remains one of Gates' favorites.He reread it again this year，labeling it the best business book he has ever read.
“Shortly after we met，Warren Buffett lent me this collection of business articles from The New Yorker from the 1950s and 1960s.I loved them as much as he did.Brooks' insights(洞察力)into business have aged beautifully，and they are as true today as ever.”
Capital in the TwentyFirst Century，by Thomas Piketty
Piketty's novel hit the shelves in August 2013 and sparked much discussion concerning income inequality throughout this year.Gates also got to sit down with Piketty himself after reading the nonfiction work to discuss the topic.
“As I told him，although I have concerns about some of his secondary points and policy prescriptions，I agree with his most important conclusions：inequality is a growing problem and governments should play a role in reducing it.”
How Asia Works，by Joe Studwell
Studwell's work，which was published in May 2014，addresses how countries such as Japan，South Korea and China have continued to achieve high growth，and why other countries have failed to do the same.
“The agriculture section of the book was particularly insightful.It provided ample food for thought for me as well as the whole Agriculture team at our foundation.And it left us thinking about whether parts of the Asian model can apply in Africa.”
Making the Modern World：Materials and Dematerialization，by Vaclav Smil
Smil's books are a constant favorite of the Microsoft's founder—one of his books makes Gates' list almost every year.“Making the Modern World”came out late in 2013 and explores the global use of materials，from silicon to wood and plastic.
“If anyone tries to tell you we're using fewer materials，send him this book.With his usual skepticism and his love of data，Smil shows how our ability to make things with fewer materials—say，soda cans that need less aluminum—makes them cheaper，which actually encourages more production.”
1．The books mentioned in the text are all about ________．
A．charity in the world
B．business and economy
C．poverty in the world
D．Bill Gates' life experience
B [考查细节理解。根据第一段的最后一句“All of the books are standout reads，according to the billionaire，most of which are focused on business and economy.”可知，比尔•盖茨喜欢的这些书都是优秀读物，其中大部分书与商业和经济有关，故B项正确。]
2．Of the books，________ is best praised by Bill Gates.
A．How Asia Works
B．Capital in the TwentyFirst Century
D．Making the Modern World：Materials and Dematerialization
C [考查细节理解。根据第三段的第二句“He reread it again this year，labeling it the best business book he has ever read.”可知，Business Adventures这本书是最受比尔•盖茨称赞的，故C项正确。]
3．Gates once had a personal discussion with the author of ________.
A．Capital in the TwentyFirst Century
C．How Asia Works
D．Making the Modern World：Materials and Dematerialization
A [考查细节理解。根据第五段的第二句“Gates also got to sit down with Piketty himself after reading the nonfiction work to discuss the topic.”可知，比尔•盖茨和Capital in the TwentyFirst Century这本书的作者坐下来交谈过，故A项正确。]
4．In How Asia Works，the author analyses ________．
A．why African agriculture cannot develop fast
B．how they can apply Asian economic model in African countries
C．why Asia is slow in agricultural development
D．how some Asian countries have rapidly grown in economy
D [考查细节理解。根据第七段中的“addresses how countries such as Japan，South Korea and China have continued to achieve high growth”可知，How Asia Works主要介绍了一些亚洲国家如日本、韩国和中国是如何快速发展经济的，故D项正确。]
(2017•南昌市第一次模拟)People who possess high selfesteem are able to commit better and produce a greater bond in relationships with others.Dr.Douglas feels that most people do not value themselves，but with love and selfrespect anyone can be above normality and grasp success with the family，the office，or others.
We have become too reliant on intelligence，beauty，and money for our own selfesteem.The loss of esteem reduces the will and ability to set and reach goals.In a series of reading Douglas teaches how to avoid negative statements，how to change them into selffacing behavior，and how to take charge of your mental attitude.Where other motivational and selfhelp work stops with the theoretical plan for success，Douglas takes everyday examples and puts them into his books.From raising children who believe in themselves to using selfesteem to help bridge the gap in the workplace，he gives readers concrete solutions to the problems that might ruin their interpersonal relations.
Selfesteem building comes from filling your thoughts with positive affirmations(肯定)and learning to react to failures with motivation instead of selfdestruction.These lessons are valuable for anyone who feels that life is even slightly out of control.People who feel they have adequate esteem can learn to use it to make their success grander，faster，and more beneficial for others.Douglas approaches this process of selfdevelopment as a means of more than creating good things for the individual but also for setting up keys for influencing good things for others.
For more than thirty years，Dr.Douglas has addressed more than two million people on topics from time management to speaking effectively to raising drugfree children.He is the author of fifteen books, including How to Make a Habit of Succeeding.
5．What can we infer from Paragraph One?
A．Most people behave well enough.
B．Selfrespect means being above normality.
C．Selfesteem matters much.
D．Committing better equals greater success.
C [考查推理判断。根据第一段第一句“People who possess high selfesteem are able to commit better and produce a greater bond in relationships with others.”和第一段的整体内容可推知，自尊心很重要，故选C。]
6．Why does Douglas put everyday examples into his books?
A．To be reliant on selfesteem.
B．To set and reach goals.
C．To avoid negative thoughts.
D．To offer concrete solutions.
D [考查细节理解。根据第二段的最后一句“From raising children who believe in themselves to using selfesteem to help bridge the gap in the workplace，he gives readers concrete solutions to the problems that might ruin their interpersonal relations.”可知，Douglas把日常的具体案例写进自己的书里是为了给出具体的应对方法，故选D。]
7．What does the author advise those whose life is slightly out of control to do?
A．Learn to be positive.
B．Face it unmotivatedly.
D．Ask for help.
A [考查细节理解。根据第三段的第一句“Selfesteem building comes from filling your thoughts with positive affirmations(肯定)and learning to react to failures with motivation instead of selfdestruction.”可知，对于那些感觉生活有些失控的人作者建议他们肯定自己，积极应对，故选A。]
8．What's the most important to be selfdevelopment?
A．Influencing the individual.
B．Influencing more people.
C．Gaining more benefits.
D．Speaking more effectively.
B [考查细节理解。根据第三段的最后一句“Douglas approaches this process of selfdevelopment as a means of more than creating good things for the individual but also for setting up keys for influencing good things for others.”可知，自我发展最重要的是影响更多的人，故选B。]
(2017•石家庄市第一次模拟) While the world is still debating the safety of selfdriving cars，Dubai is preparing to launch an autonomous flying taxi.Starting in July，the world's first passenger drone(无人机)，the EHANG 184，will be available to passengers.
The shuttle，released in Las Vegas in January 2016，weighs 440 pounds and can fly at heights of up to 11，500 feet.The eggshaped vehicle has room for a single passenger weighing up to 220 pounds and a small suitcase.Though the flying taxi can reach speeds of up to 100 mph，it will typically operate at about 62 mph.
Passengers can ask for the flying taxi to pick them up from appointed zones using a smartphone app.Passengers strap into the seat，select a destination on the touch screen，and enjoy the flight.To ensure the passenger's safety，all flights are monitored remotely by a control room on the ground.
In the unlikely event that any of the components malfunction or disconnect，the drone will make an emergency landing to ensure the customer's safety.It's also programmed to ensure its route won't affect that of another drone.While having no control over the remotely piloted vehicle may appear scary，the producer，Chinabased EHANG，says，“It is the safest，smartest and ecofriendly low altitude autonomous flying vehicle.”Any drawback？The EHANG 184 has a battery life of 30 minutes and a flight range of just 31 miles.Also unknown is the cost of each ride.
Though the flying taxi seems advanced，it is not the first driverless transportation option available to Dubai's residents.As part of its goal to have 25%of the public transportation automated by 2030，the authorities have built the world's longest driverless metro and introduced selfnavigating shuttles.Officials recently also partnered with a US company to build supersonic speed pods to carry passengers between Dubai and Abu Dhabi.
【语篇解读】 本文是一篇科普说明文。介绍了一种迪拜正准备投入使用的无人驾驶低空飞行器——EHANG 184。
9．What can we learn about the flying taxi?
A．A passenger can call for a flying taxi online.
B．It can carry a weight of 220 pounds at most.
C．A passenger can touch the screen to control it.
D．It usually flies at a speed of 100 miles an hour.
A [考查细节理解。根据第三段的第一句“Passengers can ask for the flying taxi to pick them up from appointed zones using a smartphone app.”可知，乘客可以使用智能手机中的软件从指定地方乘坐EHANG 184，故A项正确。]
[干扰项分析] B项错在220 pounds at most，与第二段第二句中的“a single passenger weighing up to 220 pounds and a small suitcase”不符；根据第三段的第二句可知，乘客在触摸屏上选择目的地，而不是控制飞行，故C项错误；根据第二段的最后一句“Though the ...it will typically operate at about 62 mph.”可知，EHANG 184的一般速度为每小时62英里，最高速为每小时100英里，故D项错误。
10．How can the shuttle guarantee the passenger's safety in an equipment failure?
A．It lowers its flying speed.
B．It changes to another route.
C．It gets help from the control room.
D．It's programmed to land autonomously.
D [考查细节理解。根据第四段第一句中的“the drone will make an emergency landing to ensure the customer's safety”可知，当遇到紧急情况时，该飞行器可以自动着陆，以保证乘客的安全。故D项正确。]
11．What is the drawback of the EHANG 184?
A．It's too scary to ride in it.
B．It costs a lot to take a ride.
C．It runs out of power easily.
D．It only flies at a low altitude.
C [考查细节理解。根据第四段中的“The EHANG 184 has a battery life of 30 minutes and a flight range of just 31 miles.”可知，EHANG 184只能连续航行30分钟，故C项正确。]
[干扰项分析] 根据第二段第一句中的“...weighs 440 pounds and can fly at heights of up to 11，500 feet.”可知，EHANG 184的飞行高度可达11 500英尺，故D项错误；A、B两项文中没有提及。
12．Which of the following makes the EHANG 184?
A．A company in Dubai.
B．A Chinese company.
C．A company in Abu Dhabi.
D．An American company.
B [考查细节理解。根据第四段第三句中的“the producer，Chinabased EHANG，says”可知，该空中飞行器是由中国的一家公司制造的，故B项正确。]
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