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2018高考英语复习专题限时集训:确定文章标题和概括全文主题           ★★★
2018高考英语复习专题限时集训:确定文章标题和概括全文主题
作者:佚名 文章来源:网络 点击数: 更新时间:2018/4/8 9:44:19

2018高考英语专题限时集训4主旨大意之确定文章标题和概括全文主题
专题限时集训(四) 主旨大意之确定文章标题和概括全文主题
(对应学生用书第97页)
A
(2017•云南省11校跨区调研考试)If our kids don't fall,they don't learn to get up.I still remember the day in high school that my mom forgot to pick me up from school.I'm the oldest of four children,and no doubt she'd had a long day with the other kids and it had slipped her mind.After waiting at school for an hour,I walked the three miles home,and when I got to my house,I shut our front door with anger,stormed into the kitchen and screamed in my mom's face that she'd forgotten me.
Later that night,my dad told me I no longer had a ride to school the next day.I figured my mom would still take me,but when the morning came,she refused.It was midterm,and as a straight­A student ready to start college applications,being late wasn't an option.In my mind,missing these tests would have been the end of my academic career.I begged my mom,I told her she was ruining my future and everything I'd worked for.But she held_her_ground,and that day, I walked to school.And I missed my tests.
My mom didn't rescue me from failure.She let me suffer from it.She let me figure it out.She let me learn.Now,as a mom myself,I've realized that I want my kids to experience failure because failure is how we grow,learn and think outside of ourselves.  It's how we self­educate to learn what's right and respectable,and what's not.It's how we become responsible and enthusiastic.
Falling down makes us better,because we learn how to get up.
【语篇解读】 本文作者通过亲身体会告诉我们:失败让我们变得更好,因为我们在失败中学会成长。
1.Why did the author shout at her mother?
A.Because she was tired after walking home.
B.Because she missed some important tests.
C.Because her mother had ruined her future.
D.Because her mother didn't pick her up home.
D [考查细节理解。根据第一段的“After waiting at school for an hour,I walked the three miles home,and when I got to my house,I shut our front door with anger,stormed into the kitchen and screamed in my mom's face that she'd forgotten me.”可知,作者在学校等了一个小时,后来自己走回了家,因此她对妈妈没有去学校接她非常生气。故选D。]
2.How does the author feel about her experience now?
A.Disappointed.     B.Merciful.
C.Beneficial. D.Embarrassed.
C [考查推理判断。根据第三段中的“Now,as a mom myself,I've realized that I want my kids to experience failure because failure is how we grow,learn and think outside of ourselves.”说明作者现在认为她之前的经历对她是有益的(Beneficial)。]
3.What does the underlined phrase“held her ground” in Paragraph 2 mean?
A.Stuck to her decision.
B.Gave in to me.
C.Said yes to me.
D.Stayed in the place.
A [考查词义猜测。根据第二段的“But she held_her_ground,and that day,I walked to school.”中But的转折意味以及后面作者仍然走着去上学可知,妈妈仍坚持她的观点,没有送作者去上学。]
4.What is the best title for the text?
A.Offer Your Kids Help if Necessary
B.Stop Rescuing Your Kids from Failure
C.Be Responsible for Your Kid's Failure
D.Try to Meet Your Kids' Demands
B [考查标题判断。根据第三段和第四段的叙述,尤其是第三段的“My mom didn't rescue me from failure.”及“...I want my kids to experience failure because failure is how we grow,learn and think outside of ourselves.”可知,B项最适合作文章标题。]
[干扰项分析] A项“如果有必要,给你的孩子提供帮助”与D项“尽力满足你孩子的要求”均与文章内容相悖。C项“对你孩子的失败负责”是年少时作者对妈妈的不满。
B 【导学号:52384044】
(2017•福州市五校第一次联考) There is a popular saying in the English language:“Sticks and stones may break my bones,but words will never hurt me.” Well,that is not true.Unkind words,name­calling or even the so­called “the silent treatment” can hurt children as much as being physically hit,sometimes even more so.
A recent study of middle school children showed that verbal(言语的)abuse by other children can harm development in the brain.The study was a project of researchers at Harvard Medical School in Massachusetts.Researcher Martin Teicher and his team studied young adults,aged 18 to 25.These young men and women had not ever been treated in a cruel or violent way by their parents.The researchers asked the young people to rate their childhood exposure to verbal abuse from both parents and other children.Then the researchers performed imaging tests on the brains of the subjects.
The images showed that the people who reported suffering verbal abuse from peers in middle school had underdeveloped connections between the left and right side of the brain.The two sides of the brain are connected by a large bundle of connecting fibers called the corpus callosum.This was the area that was underdeveloped.
The middle school years are a time when these brain connections are developing.So,unkind,hurtful comments from children or adults during this period have the greatest effect.The researchers tested the mental and emotional condition of all the young people in the study.The tests showed that this same group of people had higher levels of fear,depression,anger and drug abuse than others in the study.
The researchers published their findings online on the American Journal of Psychiatry's website.
Parents cannot control what other people say to their children,but they can prepare their children.
【语篇解读】 本文是说明文。马萨诸塞州哈佛医学院的研究人员发现,语言暴力会干扰大脑神经的连接,对孩子的大脑发育造成不良影响。
5.Why does the author use the popular saying at the beginning?
A.To show the power of words.
B.To introduce an opposite view.
C.To prove the author's argument.
D.To show ancient people's wisdom.
B [考查作者意图。引用名人名言、谚语等是文章开篇的常见写作方式,且大多用来引入文章的话题。但是根据此谚语后面的“Well,that is not true.Unkind words,name­calling or even the so­called ‘the silent treatment’ can hurt children as much as being physically hit,sometimes even more so.”可知,本文引用这个谚语恰恰是为了引出一个不同的或者说是相反的观点,故选B。]
6. What did the subjects have in common?
A.They were hurt by unkind words.
B.They performed poorly in imaging tests.
C.They had their brain slightly damaged.
D.They experienced no physical abuse at home.
D [考查细节理解。根据第二段中的“These young men and women had not ever been treated in a cruel or violent way by their parents.”可知,这些实验对象都没有遭受父母的残酷或暴力对待,也就是说,他们在家里都没受到过身体上的虐待。故选D。]
7.What will be discussed in the next paragraph?
A.Comments on the findings.
B.Approaches to further studies.
C.Suggestions to parents.
D.Different opinions on the matter.
C [考查推理判断。根据文章最后一段“Parents cannot control what other people say to their children,but they can prepare their children.”可知,作者接下来应该会就“父母如何帮助自己的孩子为可能遭受的语言暴力做好准备,使他们不会受到语言暴力的影响”给出一些方法或建议。故选C。]
8.What is the main idea of the passage?
A.The way we speak matters.
B.Verbal violence should be stopped.
C.Unkind words hurt the brain.
D.Words are worse than sticks and stones.
C [考查主旨要义。文章介绍了语言暴力对孩子的不良影响,再根据文中的“verbal(言语的)abuse by other children can harm development in the brain”可以看出,其影响主要体现在孩子的大脑发育方面。故选C。]
C
(2017•兰州市诊断考试)Most episodes of absent­mindedness—forgetting where you left something or wondering why you just entered a room—are caused by a simple lack of attention,says Schacter,“You're supposed to remember something,but you haven't encoded it deeply.”
Encoding,Schacter explains,is a special way of paying attention to an event that has a major impact on recalling it later.Failure to encode properly can create an annoying situation.If you put your mobile phone in a pocket,for example,and don't pay attention to what you did because you're involved in a conversation,you'll probably forget that the phone is in the jacket now hanging in your wardrobe(衣柜).“Your memory itself isn't failing you,”says Schacter,“Rather,you didn't give your memory system the information it needed.”
Lack of interest can also lead to absent­mindedness.“A man who recites sports statistics from 30 years ago,”says Zelinski,“may not remember to drop a letter in the mailbox.”Women have slightly better memory than men,possibly because they are more interested in what's happening around them,and memory relies on just that.
Visual cues(提示)can help prevent absent­mindedness,says Schacter.“But be sure the cue is clear and available,”he cautions.If you want to remember to take a medication with lunch,put the pill bottle on the kitchen table—don't leave it in the medicine chest and write yourself a note that you keep in a pocket.
Another common episode of absent­mindedness:walking into a room and wondering why you're there.Most likely,you were thinking about something else.“Everyone does this from time to time,”says Zelinski.The best thing to do is to return to where you were before entering the room,and you'll likely remember.
【语篇解读】 本文主要介绍了心不在焉的原因以及相应的应对策略。
【长难句解读】 If you put your mobile phone in a pocket,for example,and don't pay attention to what you did because you're involved in a conversation,you'll probably forget that the phone is in the jacket now hanging in your wardrobe(衣柜).
[分析] 本句是一个复合句。If引导条件状语从句;what引导宾语从句,在从句中作宾语,指代事物;because引导原因状语从句;that引导宾语从句,在从句中不作句子成分;hanging为现在分词作后置定语。
[译文] 譬如,如果你把手机放在口袋里,因为你在和别人讲话并没有在意你之前所做的事,你有可能就会忘记你的手机现在正在挂在衣柜里的夹克里。
9.What does the underlined word “episodes”in Paragraph 1 probably mean?
A.Experiences. B.Experiments.
C.Expressions. D.Feelings.
A [考查词义猜测。根据文章第一段的“absent­mindedness—forgetting where you left something or wondering why you just entered a room—are caused by a simple lack of attention,says Schacter”和最后一段的第一句“Another common episode of absent­mindedness:walking into a room and wondering why you're there.”可推知,episode指的是心不在焉的一种经历,故选A。experience“经历”。]
10.According to the passage,women have better memory than men probably because ________.
A.they have a wider range of interests
B.they always put things where they were
C.they pay more attention to their environment
D.they prefer to write notes to tell themselves what they should do
C [考查细节理解。根据第三段的最后一句“Women have slightly better memory than men,possibly because they are more interested in what's happening around them,and memory relies on just that.”可知,女性比男性更关注周围的环境,因此记忆力要好些。]
11. What can help prevent absent­mindedness according to Schacter?
A.Writing notes.
B.Taking some medicine.
C.Putting something in sight.
D.Returning to where you were.
C [考查细节理解。根据第四段的第一句“Visual cues(提示)can help prevent absent­mindedness,says Schacter.”可知,Schacter认为人们可以用可视性提示来规避心不在焉。]
12.What is the best title for the text?
A.A Way of Recalling
B.The Importance of Encoding
C.Cures for Absent­mindedness
D.Causes and Coping Strategies of Absent­mindedness
D [考查标题判断。根据文章中的高频词“absent­mindedness”和对全文的整体理解可知,本文主要讲的是心不在焉的原因及其应对策略,故选D。


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